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The Horner Bible Reading System: Another Variation

May 5, 2012 2 comments

I’ve often blogged about the Horner Bible Reading Plan and modifications to it. At the core is a genre-based reading system in which one reads one or two chapters from each of several lists each day.  Such a plan usually includes anywhere from 6 to 12 lists, and each list has a certain number of Bible books; each list represents a different genre, such as the Pentateuch, history, prophets, literature, gospel, NT epistles, and so forth.  In this way one is always reading a small portion from each of the different parts of the Bible.  The Horner Ten List plan is the most well-known one, announced a few years ago by Professor Grant Horner.  In such a plan, for the first day one reads the first one or two chapters from list 1, then one or two chapters from list 2, and so forth through all the lists. The next day, read the next chapters for each list, and so on until you reach the end of the list.

For most genre plans, the lists are of different lengths, so that one list will be finished while still reading through the other lists. When you finish the end of one list, you start back at the beginning of that same list. The result is an infinite possibility of different reading “combinations” each day, that you’re never reading the exact same set of Bible chapters from day to day.  Currently I follow an 8-list, 12-13 chapters genre plan, the result of various modifications made to the original Horner 10 List Plan, which I began in early 2009.

In early 2011 I created and read through a “90 day genre reading” plan to complete the Bible in 90 days: not the usual 90 day plan of going straight through from Genesis to Revelation, but a set of 9 lists for the different genres.

The genre plan is easy to follow and modify, and it’s fun to come up with different reading lists.  On the facebook genre Bible reading group, a few others are reading with the 90 day genre plan — and coming up with their own modifications to that, such as to have fewer lists (six total) and more chapters, in some cases three chapters at a time.

Now for another 8 list plan idea, one I plan to switch over to in the next few weeks.  (Here is the link to the plan.) This one incorporates the Jewish Old Testament book sequence (this site shows the Jewish book sequence), which differs from the Christian canon, for a few different reading lists.  Note that the Pentateuch and gospel lists remain unchanged, and List 8, NT books, is the same as that list in the 90 day plan.  Like the 90 day plan, this one is more balanced between Old and New Testaments, for only three chapters per day (two lists) in the NT.  The Psalms list is similar to the one for the current 8 lists, except that I removed “Song of Solomon” and put it with List 6, per the Jewish OT book sequence.  As seen in the PDF, I tweaked the actual readings for a few days, to compensate for lengthier or shorter chapters within the lists, as well as to minimize the frequency of list realignment. (List realignment occurs when, after multiple times through the various lists, two of the lists are “synced” back to the same days as in the first time through.  This reading plan will have its first realignment — lists 2 and 5 — after almost 2 3/4 years of doing this plan.  Other lists would take over 7 years to realign to the original lists.)

List 1: Pentateuch — 1 or 2 chapters per day, 109 days
List 2: Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Ezekiel (from “The Prophets”): 2 chapters per day, 98 days
List 3: Isaiah, Jeremiah, the Twelve (minor prophets; from “The Prophets” list): 2 chapters per day, 94 days
List 4: Psalms 2 chapters per day, Ecclesiastes 1 chapter per day: 87 days
List 5: Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, 1 chapter per day: 90 days
List 6: Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles, 1 chapter per day: 106 days
List 7: Gospels, 1 chapter per day: 89 days
List 8: NT Acts through Revelation, 2 chapters per day: 88 days

The PDF reading list

Bible Reading for 2012: 90 Day Modified Horner Bible Reading

December 16, 2011 6 comments

Following is a re-post from December of last year, when I mentioned my 90-Day Modified Horner Reading Plan.   Click here for the PDF for the full 90-day reading.  It was a good reading plan, 14 chapters a day and gradually reducing near the end of the 90 days, to complete and end the reading on March 31.  Since then I’ve been back to an 8-list genre reading plan which completes the Bible every 125 days.

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Update:  New Facebook discussion group for the Horner Bible Reading plan and modifications including this 90-day reading plan.

At the beginning of 2010 I described a 2010 Bible Reading Challenge with several variations on the Horner Bible Reading System, a genre-based reading through each of several different sections of the Bible.  With such plans you read one or two chapters from each list, for a total of 10 to 14 chapters per day, and read completely through the Bible several times per year.

For most of this year I’ve been doing an eight list plan that includes 12 to 14 chapters per day; the longest list is 125 days.  However, beginning January 1, just for the first three months, I’ll be following a 9-list 90 days plan.

List 1:  Gospels  (89 days) — one chapter per day
List 2:  Pentateuch (90 days) — two chapters per day
List 3:  New Testament (Acts through Revelation) — two chapters per day
List 4:  Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Ecclesiastes — one chapter per day
List 5:  Psalms, Song of Solomon — two chapters per day
List 6:  History Joshua thru 2 Kings (except Ruth), and Esther — two chapters per day
List 7:  History 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah — one chapter per day
List 8:  Major Prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel — two chapters per day
List 9:  Other Prophets–Lamentations, Daniel thru Malachi — one chapter per day

Since this is not an A-to-Z type plan that breaks the reading in the middle of chapters, the lists do not all end on the last day.  Actually, all the lists except List 1 end before March 31, and so the reading gradually tapers off toward the end.  List 9 ends on March 25, and the others end gradually after that.  I made additional adjustments for some especially long chapters, so that where I would normally read two chapters I only read one for those days.  A few examples of these include Psalm 119 split into two days, as well as 1 Kings 7 and 8, Jeremiah 49 through 52, and Ezekiel 39 and 40

You may notice that I put Ruth in List 4 after Proverbs.  I made this adjustment after learning that, at least at one time, the Jewish scriptures placed Ruth after Proverbs — flowing from the Proverbs 31 woman to the godly woman Ruth.

*** Added on 1/3/2011:   A good variation on the reading sequence — instead of reading the lists in the order above, read as follows:

List 2 (Pentateuch)
Lists 6-7 (History)
Lists 8-9 (Prophets)
Lists 4 and 5 (wisdom books)
List 1 (Gospels)
List 3 (New Testament)

Click here to see the actual day-by-day list, in PDF format for printing.

PDF of the 125-day 8 list plan.  (Note: with the eight list plan, after you complete a list you return to the beginning of that list.)

90 Day Bible Reading Plan, Genre-Style: Final Observations

April 1, 2011 Leave a comment

Update:  New Facebook discussion group for the Horner Bible Reading plan and variations on it.

I have now completed reading the Bible in 90 days, Prof. Horner genre style.  Here are just a few insights from recent reading.

To finish the Pentateuch in 90 days (instead of 93 days, two chapters at a time) I scheduled the last several days to read three chapters at a time.  For the most part three chapters of Deuteronomy is okay, but chapter 28 is quite lengthy.  To compensate for the extra reading in Deuteronomy 28 that day, I only read one chapter of Revelation — chapter 21 — and finished Revelation the next day (March 30).

Yet that slight change provided even greater reading parallels for the next day:  reading about the river of life in both Ezekiel 47 and Revelation 22.  Also, John 21:20 and 23 mention Jesus’ return (in Jesus’ words to Peter, if I want him to remain alive until I come…) and then Revelation 22:7 proclaims “Behold, I am coming soon.”  It’s also a way in which we see that John, who did outlive the other apostles, did remain until Jesus’ Revelation concerning His coming again.

Other great reading combinations included Deuteronomy 25:13-25 with Ezekiel 45:10-12, showing God’s continual concern for fairness and justice, even with the practical matters of daily life such as standard weights and measurements.

Next, I’m starting my 8-list modification, from the beginning — a new starting point.  Before, I gradually merged from the original 10-list plan into the current plan.  As always, I’m sure the new readings will be just as good, with more different but good reading parallels and combinations.

Completing the 90-Day Horner Bible Reading Plan

March 24, 2011 Leave a comment

I’m nearing the end of the modified Horner Bible Reading plan for 90 days, now down to 13 chapters per day — and after tomorrow (finishing Malachi) down to 12 chapters.  It’s been fun and interesting, similar to my standard plan in the amount of reading, but always different readings (no lists repeating again) — plus more concentration in the Old Testament.

Reading Nehemiah and Esther together has been interesting — two contrasting views of the same time period (after the Babylonian exile).  Recently I read Zechariah 12 and Revelation 1 together, a great combination since Rev. 1:7 directly references Zechariah 12:10.  Other great reading pairs have included Numbers 14 — where God swears by the truth that the glory of the Lord will fill the earth — a few days after Habakkuk 2:14, and Psalm 145:10-13 on the same day as Revelation 5, the time when Christ begins to take action — the arrival of the Kingdom is near!

Reading Deuteronomy always fits well with the later history, with the frequent reminders to the people of Israel to honor the Lord God and not follow the ways of the nations around them — and the sad result throughout chapters of OT history and prophets, that they did not follow God and that all the consequences that God warned them of indeed came to pass in their later history.

Psalm 119 has great wisdom, as in verse 36, so appropriate along with reading of Gehazi’s greed in 2 Kings 5:19-27.

Hebrews 13:13 (“Therefore let us go to him outside the camp and bear the reproach he endured”) on the same day as Luke 23 is also very fitting.

Modified Horner Bible Reading for 90 Days: The Midpoint

February 16, 2011 5 comments

Update:  New Facebook discussion group for the Horner Bible Reading plan and variations on it.

I have now completed the first half of the modified Horner 90 day Bible reading plan, and the plan has been enjoyable.  The quantity of reading is really not that different from my previous plan (8 list plan with 12 to 14 chapters); in this plan I always read two chapters from the Pentateuch, which sometimes requires more concentration over the more tedious and longer chapters in the latter part of Exodus.

The first month, one third of the schedule, involved longer books, so that by January 30 I had only completed 9 of the 66 books (Genesis, Joshua, Judges, 1 Chronicles, Lamentations, Daniel, Matthew, Acts, and Romans).  Of course, as the schedule indicates, the second month closes in more of the gaps, completing more books — since by this point many of the books are shorter, especially in the minor prophets and New Testament lists.  So at the halfway point through the list, I have completed reading 22 of the 66 books.

This plan definitely has more emphasis on the history and prophets (six chapters total of those sections), and through this am reminded even more so of Israel’s interesting history, from the early days through to the time of the Babylonian captivity, and their continual rebellion marked with occasional high points such as the kingdom under David and Solomon.  2 Chronicles also highlights a few good times when the people responded to God’s word and experienced immediate blessings, as under King Asa.  Even among the prophets I see some parallels and references to other books — such as recent reading in Jeremiah 26:18-19, in which the people recall the days of Micah of Moresheth.  In the other prophets list I am about to start reading Micah’s prophesy as well.

Here are a few other interesting combinations from recent reading:

  • judgments related to nature and crops:  the hailstorm of Egypt (Exodus 9:22-32) and a thunderstorm to destroy the crops of the Israelites when they ask for a king (1 Samuel 12:17).
  • Isaiah 63:12-13, the same day as reading the account in Exodus 14 (crossing the Red Sea)
  • Mark 7:10, the same day as reading the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20

Reading through The Bible in 90 Days (a Genre Plan): Reading Update

January 17, 2011 Leave a comment

As with the standard Horner Bible Reading System, reading through the scriptures following this 14-chapter per day plan (described here) yields some interesting parallels.  The Horner Bible Reading plan so lends itself to modifications, because any combination will show some parallels, though different ones in each case.

So far, this 90 day plan, starting with Genesis and going forward, follows the biblical time sequence:  Genesis, then Joshua-Judges, then 1 Chronicles (time of King David), then Isaiah (King Hezekiah), then Daniel (Babylonian exile).  Job and the Psalms provide a break for other Old Testament readings, followed by the New Testament sequence: gospels, then Acts.  The readings won’t always follow the chronological sequence — in some cases the second reading from the prophets will be earlier in the time sequence, and Jeremiah and Ezekiel reflect a later time period — but it’s great so far.

Anyway, here are some good reading parallels I’ve noted from the readings so far:

  • Genesis 12:8 mentions Ai and Bethel.  Joshua 12:9 also mentions these places, on day 12.
  • Genesis 11 and Daniel 1 both reference “the land of Shinar,” Babylon — where pagan religion started and continued through Daniel’s day
  • Psalm 16, and Acts 13:35 (quotes from Psalm 16), on day 8
  • Matthew 10, in which Jesus speaks of Sodom and Gomorrah, along with Genesis 19, on day 10
  • Daniel 6 — Daniel in the lions’ den — and Psalm 22:21 (save me from the mouth of the lion!), on days 11 and 12
  • Daniel 3:18 — contrasted with Job 8:3-6, on day 8.  The Hebrew children recognized that God might not deliver them, whereas Job’s friends understood a God that only brought harm on the wicked
  • Genesis 26:4 (the promise confirmed to Isaac, Abraham’s son) and the reminder of that promise to the unfaithful Israelites in Judges 2:1 on day 13
  • Judges 1:21 (Jerusalem and the Jebusites) on day 13, after 1 Chronicles 11:4-6 (David’s men conquering the same) on day 11
  • Isaiah 26:15 (day 13)  provides a wonderful contrast, that glorious future day, as compared to the days of unfaithful Israel in Judges.
  • Job 13, especially verses 15 and 25,  is answered with the better New Testament day, Matthew 13:17 (day 13) and Matthew 12:20 (from day 12)
  • Genesis 34 — land of Shechem, and Hamor and his son Shechem; then Judges 9, set in Shechem.  Note especially verse 28, which mentions “Hamor the father of Shechem.” — Day 17

Anyone else have some interesting reading parallels to share, from this 90 day plan?  Or from the original Horner or other modified versions?

A Bible Reading Plan for 2011: Modified Horner Bible Reading for 90 Days

December 10, 2010 6 comments

Update:  New Facebook discussion group for the Horner Bible Reading plan and modifications including this 90-day reading plan.

At the beginning of 2010 I described a 2010 Bible Reading Challenge with several variations on the Horner Bible Reading System, a genre-based reading through each of several different sections of the Bible.  With such plans you read one or two chapters from each list, for a total of 10 to 14 chapters per day, and read completely through the Bible several times per year.

For most of this year I’ve been doing an eight list plan that includes 12 to 14 chapters per day; the longest list is 125 days.  However, beginning January 1, just for the first three months, I’ll be following a 9-list 90 days plan.

List 1:  Gospels  (89 days) — one chapter per day
List 2:  Pentateuch (90 days) — two chapters per day
List 3:  New Testament (Acts through Revelation) — two chapters per day
List 4:  Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Ecclesiastes — one chapter per day
List 5:  Psalms, Song of Solomon — two chapters per day
List 6:  History Joshua thru 2 Kings (except Ruth), and Esther — two chapters per day
List 7:  History 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah — one chapter per day
List 8:  Major Prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel — two chapters per day
List 9:  Other Prophets–Lamentations, Daniel thru Malachi — one chapter per day

Since this is not an A-to-Z type plan that breaks the reading in the middle of chapters, the lists do not all end on the last day.  Actually, all the lists except List 1 end before March 31, and so the reading gradually tapers off toward the end.  List 9 ends on March 25, and the others end gradually after that.  I made additional adjustments for some especially long chapters, so that where I would normally read two chapters I only read one for those days.  A few examples of these include Psalm 119 split into two days, as well as 1 Kings 7 and 8, Jeremiah 49 through 52, and Ezekiel 39 and 40

You may notice that I put Ruth in List 4 after Proverbs.  I made this adjustment after learning that, at least at one time, the Jewish scriptures placed Ruth after Proverbs — flowing from the Proverbs 31 woman to the godly woman Ruth.

*** Added on 1/3/2011:   A good variation on the reading sequence — instead of reading the lists in the order above, read as follows:

  • List 2 (Pentateuch)
  • Lists 6-7 (History)
  • Lists 8-9 (Prophets)
  • Lists 4 and 5 (wisdom books)
  • List 1 (Gospels)
  • List 3 (New Testament)

Click here to see the actual day-by-day list, in PDF format for printing.

Parallels Between Israel’s Exodus and Christ’s Second Coming

November 26, 2010 Leave a comment

Ezekiel 20:35-36 — And I will bring you into the wilderness of the peoples, and there I will enter into judgment with you face to face. 36 As I entered into judgment with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so I will enter into judgment with you, declares the Lord God.

As has often been observed by Bible teachers, and I’ve noticed in my own Bible readings, the similarities between the book of Revelation end-times judgments, and the past judgment plagues on Egypt, are striking.  Both accounts involve descriptions of ruined water, famine and pestilence, locusts, and frogs, for instance.  As a biblical response to naturalist-minded believers, this parallel is a strong argument for the very supernatural power behind the future judgments.  These events will not be the result of man’s technological innovation, nuclear war fallout or any other disaster that man can inflict on this planet — any more than the plagues in Egypt were of man’s doing.  The fact that the people in Revelation 6 cry out for the rocks to fall on them and hide them from the wrath of God, from the wrath of the Lamb, ought to be obvious enough proof that the people there realize just Who is responsible for their plight:  not mankind in some global nuclear warfare.

All of the above texts show implicit similarities and parallels — we can see the similarities, but nothing explicit in the texts to link Egypt with the future.  In my recent Bible readings (in a modified Horner Bible Reading), though, I noticed a direct mention of the similarities between the two events.  I especially noticed Ezekiel 20:36 — which makes an explicit comparison between the Exodus from Egypt and the Second Coming judgment.  Where Exodus and Revelation describe actual plagues on the land and people, and the rest of the Pentateuch describes the wilderness wanderings, Ezekiel 20 tells us that Israel will face judgment, at the Second Coming, similar to that previous one.  So here we even see a parallel sequence between the two events:

Past (Exodus) Event Future (Second Coming) Event
1. Great plagues of judgment on the Egyptians Great plagues of judgment on the whole world
2. Israel removed from its land of sojourning Israel removed from its land where it was gathered in unbelief
(Daniel 9:27, 2 Thess. 2:4, Matt. 24:15-21, Rev. 11:2)
3. Israel tested and tried in the wilderness Israel regathered (ref. Matt. 24:31) and tried/judged in the wilderness
(Ezekiel 20:35-36)

It’s an interesting parallel, if I read and understand the scripture correctly.  However, I checked a few commentaries, such as the MacArthur Bible Commentary and Thomas Constable’s online commentary, and these both see verse 35 as referring to the Jewish dispersion of the present age. Yet Constable’s commentary, citing Scofield, does see verses 36 to 38 as referring to the future Great Tribulation:

“The passage is a prophecy of future judgment upon Israel, regathered from all nations . . . The issue of this judgment determines who of Israel in that day will enter kingdom blessing (Ps. 50:1-7; Ezek. 20:33-44; Mal. 3:2-5; 4:1-2).”  (The New Scofield.)

When taken as a whole, I don’t see how verse 35 is referring to the present day scattering, when the previous verse (20:34) clearly begins a section describing a gathering of the people who had been previously scattered:  I will bring you out from the peoples and gather you out of the countries where you are scattered, with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, and with wrath poured out.  In verse 35 they have already been regathered, so the commentary notes for verse 35 in the MBC and Constable don’t make sense of the narrative sequence.  Instead, it seems that verse 34 begins with the current situation (the countries where you are scattered) and takes us into the future, when they are brought out and gathered — a yet future event.  It even could be said that all of this is future, since some biblical texts indicate a scattering of the Jews during the tribulation:  a first gathering in unbelief (begun in 1948) to allow the building of the tribulation-era temple and the seven year covenant with antiChrist, then a scattering at the mid-point of that 7 year covenant, followed by a regathering (in belief) during the Great Tribulation / Day of the Lord and preparation to enter into the Millennial Kingdom.  Such is my original understanding, as shown above, and so I still find this an interesting sequence, especially considering the parallel to the Exodus from Egypt and its sequence.

Horner Bible Reading Update

October 6, 2010 Leave a comment

The modified Horner Bible Reading plan continues to work well, with 8 different selections and up to 14 chapters per day.  Often some good parallel readings come along, and as the months go by the different sections of the Bible become more familiar with each re-reading.  Sometimes the readings also complement a particular Bible study sermon series.  The original Ten-list Horner Bible Reading plan has a nice “surprise” with the alignment of Exodus 24 and Hebrews 9 in the first time through.  Obviously with frequent modifications the same groupings do not re-occur — but other nice ones will surface.

Here are a few interesting parallels from my recent readings:

New Testament and Deuteronomy:

Isaiah 40 (List 7) and Revelation 19 (List 8 ) both feature great praise to God!

John 8, Genesis 12, and Joshua 1

John 8 relates that Abraham saw Jesus’ day and was glad.  Genesis 12 begins the story of Abraham being called by God.  Joshua 1:6 reminds us of the Abrahamic covenant, now being acted upon with the people about to enter the land for the first time in over 400 years.

List 3: Ecclesiastes 8:2 — a good reference point for 1 Timothy 2:1-2, regarding kings and rulers, a recent subject in my 1 Timothy S. Lewis Johnson Study.

List 2: Genesis 15, the Abrahamic covenant and promises regarding the numerous offspring of Abraham  — and — List 3: Hebrews 2:16,   “he helps the offspring of Abraham.”

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Too much Bible reading? A Poor Example of Legalism

September 10, 2010 1 comment

In a recent Sunday School class the teacher was discussing legalism, and as an example cited too much Bible reading — that a legalistic person boasts about how many Bible chapters they’ve read, and then feels the need to read even more and more chapters, to do better than others and be somehow superior to others because of how much Bible reading they do.

Given that the majority of Christians do not read their Bible enough, as evidenced by profound ignorance and lack of discernment concerning popular Christian leaders, and the local church never exhorts the congregation to read their Bibles, I hardly think this an edifying example of legalism.  No doubt someone, somewhere, has this problem — but seriously, how many people are legalistic and reading too much of their Bible, as compared to the opposite extreme?  How many professed believers today really have any problem with legalism, period, much less on the point of Bible reading?

As someone commented at another blog concerning Gospel-Centered Legalism, “It’s like people who don’t read their bibles for fear of being legalistic; I say if that’s your struggle, then, BE legalistic about reading your bible but while doing that, read passages about how our salvation is not contingent on our works. And pray that the Spirit opens your eyes.”

Over 8,000 people have joined Grant Horner’s Facebook group for the Horner Bible Reading plan, and the comments there are always positive towards the idea of learning God’s word and enjoying this type of reading plan, along with plenty of admissions that they haven’t been reading their Bible enough — and expressions of thanks to Professor Horner for this idea.  Many Christian blogs often feature comments from those who admit their lack in this area, that they neglect time in God’s word.

In my google searching on the topic of Bible reading and legalism, I found many other examples of legalism (though not of Bible reading).  I even came across a site that exposes the common problems in modern churches, including legalism.  The example given was not TOO MUCH Bible reading, but the opposite:

“The member is expected to get all of his doctrinal interpretation from the leadership of the church. This practice discourages individual Bible reading and Bible study. Researching doctrinal information on the Internet, radio, or in Bible commentaries is strongly discouraged. Members are taught to not trust their own interpretation of Scripture and avoid doing so. …  A typical example of communication control occurred during four social dinner gatherings of four couples from the church. .. In one of these groups there was no Bible discussions other than the prayer before dinner. None of the many church doctrines was discussed during any of the four dinners.

Consider also the examples set by godly, doctrinally sound preachers:  never have I come across any mention from such leaders that someone could be legalistic about their Bible reading.  Instead, they are frequently exhorting their audience to read the Bible — because that is the common problem throughout the ages.  C.H. Spurgeon and J.C. Ryle describe the very same problem as 20th century preachers S. Lewis Johnson, John MacArthur and others into the 21st century.  All Christians need to hear the importance of reading their Bible, because even redeemed, regenerated believers have the old nature and its tendency to neglect this part of the Christian walk.

So why does a Sunday School teacher instead cite Bible reading as an example of legalism?  In this case, it was from actual experience of becoming legalistic in Bible reading — reading through it every month (12 times a year): a rare case, but evidently a few Christians can go to this other extreme.  Yet in many cases when someone suggests that Bible reading is legalistic, the real reason is to cover one’s own neglect of scripture. It’s always easier, the lazy flesh-indulging approach, to play the legalism card — along with a post-modern attitude — and criticize those who do take God’s word seriously, who do greatly value and treasure it, and who enjoy their time in God’s word:  “oh, they’re just being legalistic.”  As J.C. Ryle put it,

It is neglect of the Bible which makes so many a prey to the first false teacher whom they hear. They would have us believe that ‘they are not learned, and do not pretend to have decided opinions.’  The plain truth is that they are lazy and idle about reading the Bible, and do not like the trouble of thinking for themselves.”